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Prevalence of Microalbuminuria Among Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Out-Patients Using the Urine Dipstick Albumin to Creatinine Ratio.

Author

Melody S. Rosales

Related Institution

Department of Pathology - Baguio General Hospital & Medical Center

Publication Information

Publication Type
Research Report
Date
September 1, 2019-August 31, 2020

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered a global burden and one of its dreaded complications is diabetic nephropathy leading to chronic kidney disease. Microalbuminuria detects the early stages of diabetic nephropathy for prompt management resulting in a delay, reversion, or prevention of renal function deterioration. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria among newly diagnosed diabetic out-patients and investigate the relationships of albuminuria to age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein serum levels.


Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 29 newly diagnosed diabetic out-patients in Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center from September 1, 2019, to August 31, 2020. Data were collected from out-patient and laboratory records for the demography and laboratory tests. Microalbuminuria was measured by computing the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio using a dipstick method on a spot urine specimen. A 3-30 mg/mmol urine albumin to creatinine ratio was considered positive for microalbuminuria. The relationship of albuminuria to age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein serum levels were calculated utilizing the Spearman correlation as a statistical tool.


Results: Out of 29 newly diagnosed diabetic out-patients, 14 (48.28%) were male and 15 (51.72%) were females. Most patients belonged to 51-58 years old age bracket with 31.03%. A majority, equivalent to 17 (58.62%) patients, had 6.5-9.9% hemoglobin A1c l. Fasting blood glucose levels were not used as diagnostic criteria for diabetes due to incomplete data collected from the patients. There were 4 (13.79%) patients who had urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 3-30 mg/mmol and were then positive for microalbuminuria. The correlation coefficient of albuminuria to age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein serum levels were 0.078 (p-value: 0.344), 0.096 (p-value: 0.311), -0.173 (p-value: 0.184) and 0.036 (p-value: 0.427), respectively.


Conclusion: Newly diagnosed diabetic-out patients in Baguio General Hospital had a prevalence of 13.79%. Age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein serum levels had no significant and negligible correlation with albuminuria, hence, suggestions on the adjustment of computed urine albumin to creatinine ratio in regards to these parameters were not necessary.

References

1. Wu, Hon-Yen . "Diagnostic Performance of Random Urine Samples Using Albumin Concentration vs Ratio of Albumin to Creatinine for Microalbuminuria Screening in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus" JAMA Internal Medicine , July 2014. Retrieved from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1867179
2. Muddu, Martin . "Utility of albumin to creatinine ratio in screening for microalbuminuria among newly diagnosed diabetic patients in Uganda: a cross sectional study" African Health Sciences 19(1): 1607, June 2014-January 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531967/pdf/AFHS1901-1607.pdf
3. Varghese, A . "Prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a diabetes centre in southern India" Postgraduate Medical Journal 77(908): 399-402, January 1998-March 1998. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11375456/
4. Chowta, N . "Microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus: Association with age, sex, weight, and creatinine clearance" Indian Journal of Nephrology 19(2): 53, July 2004-June 2005. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2847808/
5. Graziani, Maria Stella . "Diagnostic accuracy of a reagent strip for assessing urinary albumin excretion in the general population" Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 24(5): 140-1494, May 2009. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19037085/

Physical Location

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